Entity Framework Search

Search is a common requirement in most business applications. In this post we will examine searching in Entity Framework and create a query object that encapsulates the common functionality of filtering, sorting, and paging.


The entity we will be using for test purposes is a User class:

public class User
    public int Id { get; set; }
    public DateTime? LastLoggedIn { get; set; }
    public string Name { get; set; }

After running migrations, this class will be represented on the database as a Users table with Id as the primary key, LastLoggedIn as a nullable datetime and Name as a nvarchar(max).

The Query Object

Following are the common search requirements in search:

  • Filtering
  • Paging
  • Sorting (change which column to sort on and change sort order)

We can create a generic, reusable query object class that captures these requirements. But first, let's create some supporting constructs.

Sort Direction

First, let's create an enum that represents the sort direction:

public enum SortDirection
    Ascending = 0,
    Descending = 1

If you're building a web application, you can also use the built-in SortDirection available in the Microsoft.AspNet.WebPages NuGet package.

Order By

Entity Framework takes an Expression<Func<T, TKey>> as a parameter in its OrderBy method. However, what we usually have is the column name and the sort direction.

To make this work we will create an extension method on IQueryable<T> that takes a column name and sort direction and returns the appropriate IOrderedQueryable<T> result:

public static IOrderedQueryable<T> OrderBy<T>(this IQueryable<T> source, string property, SortDirection sortDirection)
    return sortDirection == SortDirection.Ascending ?
            ApplyOrder(source, property, "OrderBy") :
            ApplyOrder(source, property, "OrderByDescending");

private static IOrderedQueryable<T> ApplyOrder<T>(IQueryable<T> source, string property, string methodName)
    string[] propertyNames = property.Split('.');
    Type type = typeof(T);
    ParameterExpression parameterExpression = Expression.Parameter(type, "x");
    Expression expression = parameterExpression;

    foreach (string propertyName in propertyNames)
        // use reflection (not ComponentModel) to mirror LINQ
        var propertyInfo = type.GetProperty(propertyName);
        expression = Expression.Property(expression, propertyInfo);
        type = propertyInfo.PropertyType;

    Type delegateType = typeof(Func<,>).MakeGenericType(typeof(T), type);
    LambdaExpression lambda = Expression.Lambda(delegateType, expression, parameterExpression);

    object result = typeof(Queryable)
                    .Single(method => method.Name == methodName &&
                                        method.IsGenericMethodDefinition &&
                                        method.GetGenericArguments().Length == 2 &&
                                        method.GetParameters().Length == 2)
                    .MakeGenericMethod(typeof(T), type)
                    .Invoke(null, new object[] { source, lambda });

    return (IOrderedQueryable<T>)result;

The extension method is OrderBy but the meat of the implementation is in ApplyOrder, which takes in the property name and method name and returns the appropriate IOrderedQueryable<T>.

(Note: I got the code from StackOverflow some time ago. Unfortunately I can't find the source anymore.)

The Query<T> Object

Now, we are in the position to write our generic query class:

public class Query<T>
    public Query(IQueryable<T> baseQueryable, int pageNumber, int pageSize, string sortBy, SortDirection sortDirection)
        BaseQueryable = baseQueryable ?? throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(baseQueryable));
        PageNumber = pageNumber;
        PageSize = pageSize;
        SortBy = sortBy;
        SortDirection = sortDirection;

    public IQueryable<T> BaseQueryable { get; private set; }
    public int PageNumber { get; private set; }
    public int PageSize { get; private set; }
    public IEnumerable<T> Results { get; private set; }
    public string SortBy { get; private set; }
    public SortDirection SortDirection { get; private set; }

    public void AddPredicate(Expression<Func<T, bool>> predicate)
        BaseQueryable = BaseQueryable.Where(predicate);

    public void Execute()
        Results = GetQuery().ToList();

    private IQueryable<T> GetQuery()
        return String.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(SortBy) ?
            BaseQueryable :
            BaseQueryable.OrderBy(SortBy, SortDirection)
                .Skip((PageNumber - 1) * PageSize)

When this class is instantiated, we supply a baseQueryable (ie. a DbSet of the entity we want to search on), the page number, page size, sort by column name, and sort direction. These are then stored in properties.

To add filters, we use the AddPredicate method, which modifies the base queryable with the filter being added. Multiple filters can be added in this fashion.

Finally, to get the results of the query, we run the Execute method. That executes the query and stores the results in the Results property.

Note that all of the properties' setters are private. Though this is not strictly required, it makes for more maintainable code. From the perspective of clients, this class is immutable.

Using the Query Object

Here is how the query object can be used:

// Paging / Sorting
var pageNumber = 1;
var pageSize = 10;
var sortBy = nameof(User.LastLoggedIn);
var sortDirection = SortDirection.Ascending;

// Filters
var name = "J";
var minLastLoggedIn = DateTime.Now.Date;

using (var db = new ApplicationDbContext())
    var userQuery = new Query<User>(db.Users, pageNumber, pageSize, sortBy, sortDirection);

    if (!String.IsNullOrWhiteSpace(name))
        userQuery.AddPredicate(u => u.Name.Contains(name));

    userQuery.AddPredicate(u => u.LastLoggedIn > minLastLoggedIn);


    // Results are in userQuery.Results

First off, we set the parameters relevant to paging, sorting, and filtering. These are all hardcoded in the sample code, but you can imagine them coming in from a user interface or web request.

Then, inside the scope of a DbContext, we instantiate the Query object and pass in the relevant parameters. Note that we are passing in the DbSet<User> as the base queryable.

To add filters, we use the AddPredicate method. Here we are adding two filters, one for the name and one for the last logged in date.

After calling the Execute method, we can inspect the Results property to see the entities retrieved.


In this post we created a generic query object that can be used to encapsulate search functionality, including filtering, sorting, and paging. This query object is fairly straightforward to use and can be used on any Entity Framework entity type.

About OJ

OJ Raqueño is a senior software developer specializing in business web applications. He has a passion for helping businesses grow through the use of software built with the best engineering practices.